Posted by: motso | May 23, 2012

Hindi Literature in different times

The Hindi language descends from the classical Sanskrit language. Though there may be seen some other language influences over it as well, which includes Arabic, Turkish, Dravidian, Farsi, English and Portuguese. The expression made in Hindi language cannot be competed and the way emotions can be conveyed through simplicity in Hindi, no other language can be so rational and exact.

Hindi literary scene involves lots of verses and overall has an oral expression. The initial hindi prose works were written by Devaki Nandan Khatri and was a fantasy novel called Chandrakanta. Before that, the literary works were generally recited in the form of poetry or songs. This is the reason why there are no major records of earlier works. However non-Hindi speakers can get a taste through English to Hindi translation. There are many literary translations available and  www.indianscripts.com is one of India’s leading translation providers from English into Hindi.

Bhakti Kaal

The medieval times were one of the best for Hindi literature. The poets used Avadhi and Brij Bhasha in their compositions as dialects and one can experience a lot of Bhakti compositions during this period. There used to be long poems, mainly consisted of epics. The two schools during this time: Nirguna School, which does not believed in the form of God and the Saguna School, which worshipped the various incarnations of Vishnu, both were at their best.

RitiKavya Kaal (Modern Period)

This was also known as Ritismarga Kavya period and forms a major element of Hindi literature. This modern era in Hindi literature developed with British, Maratha and Afghans ruling the Central India. Initially, the learned spoke only Braj and Avadhi which too lost their prestige over a period of time. The main language used for literature became Kari and it was during 18th century that some of the greatest literature was developed, eg, Gangabhatt’s Mahima, Ramprasad Niranjani’s Yogavashishtha, Jatmal’s Gorabadal and the likes of Mandovar Ka Varnan.

Once the East India Company incepted Calcutta’s Fort William College, there was no limit to the development that Hindi language and literature saw. The college’s president ensured that enough books were written in Urdu and Hindi languages and thus he hired professors especially for the same. Some of the examples of books written there include Munshi Inshallah Khan’s Rani Ketaki Ki Kahani, Sadasukhlal’s Sukhsagar, Sadal Mishra’s Naasiketopaakhyan and Lallolal’s Premsagar.

It is clear in Indian history that this was the era of general public speaking Hindustani. The learned Muslims used Urdu and the educated Hindus used Khadiboli to distinguish themselves from the rest. The only difference between the two was that Khadiboli included Sanskrit vocabulary while Urdu has Persian dominated vocabulary.

Bhartendu Harishchand and Dayanand Saraswati popularized Sahityik Hindi through their writings. However, when it used to come to writing poetry, Harishchandra used Braj dialect. Still for prose writing, Khadiboli was preferred. Even the magazines and newspapers used Khadiboli and thus it became a popular dialect amongst the educated class. The major writers who emerged during this era include Maithili Sharan Gupt, Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, Gopala Sharan Sinha and RN Tripathi.

However, it was Munshi Premchand who brought realism and progressive movement in Hindi literature. He gave a new direction to fiction which earlier was all about magical stories and religious epics. After Premchand, other important Hindi writers of this era include Ajenya, Jainendra Kumar and Phaneshwar Nath Renu.

Many more articles on Hindi languages are available at http://www.indianscripts.com/Articles.html

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